Foundation is a base of any construction, and it influences on reliable and durable service life of any buildings and their safe operation. Modern buildings have a lot of new materials and technologies, with which you can create different types of basement. Nowadays pile foundations are quite popular, having a number of advantages over the usual concrete base.
Pile foundations will be indispensable, if the soil of a future construction is soft and viscous. Typically, this applies to clay soils, when another basement type is simply unacceptable.
What issues can be solved with the help of a pile foundation?
During the construction it is necessary to solve important problems, among which we should mention:
- presence of ground water elevated levels;
- frost heaving – a phenomenon with which homogeneous soils with mobility (sand, loam, sandy loam) are characterized;
- limited construction budget.
With pile basements you can solve many of these problems – your construction can be made in the area with difficult terrain, soil, and regardless of the time of year. The final design is durable, reliable and made for a long service life.
Several important advantages
If pile foundations are based on steel pipes, then they show excellent results while the operation:
- They have high load carrying capacities for various types of loads;
- Confront forces of frost heaving, which can destroy concrete structures;
- Easy to assembly and install – they can be installed on any surface without the need to apply complicated construction equipment;
- Such a basis is not limited on soil types – peat, wood, or even in the water;
- Constructions with such foundations can be quickly expanded;
- Designed for a long period of use – at least 100 years.
Pile foundations are divided into different kinds – it depends on material types, and how they are immersed into the ground.
- Precast into the ground – immersed with a variety of tools – hammers, pinch or immerse tools, most of them with vibrating effect. Mostly continuous rods having a square cross section are used here.
- Screw metal – screwing into soil, for this purpose blades are provided on their surfaces.
- Cladding – carried out with the use of vibrating hollow structure, then filling up with concrete solution.
Installation of these rods is performed in this way: a hole is made in the ground, where concrete is poured. Pilling is performed right on a spot. You can make them reinforced or conventional.
Piles can be located under a future home in different ways:
- under house walls in the form of strips;
- as separate elements – in the most important places of your structure;
- in groups – if necessary, create a bearing for heavy structures;
- as a continuous field, holding a grillage.
These details may differ, for example, depending on manufacturing materials (made of metal or wood, concrete, reinforced concrete); often details differ by the presence or absence of voids in the structure; they can be different in cross section shapes – square, round, and in the bearing nature.
Continuous reinforced concrete rods, precast concrete, and steel screw are considered the most comfortable in the private construction.
The principle of construction process of such a basement is quite simple. Despite the fact that upper ground layers are soft and sticky, lower layers are still reliable and rugged. Main details installed in a certain order, can reduce load of upper layers to the bottom, characterized by reliability and durability. Because of this, they achieve the desired stability for the whole construction.
To build a bored foundation, you do not need special equipment. You may use a simple garden drill, which will help to set all necessary elements for a basis. Beforehand mark locations specified with scheme circuit, perform drilling by a tool and make a well depth of about 40 inches and diameter of 8 inches.
To increase a bearing area, which in turn increases the bearing rod capacity, operate extension of borehole bottom. You can use a sapper shovel and crowbar. Use a drill to pull out the ground. Hammer some rubble or gravel in the bottom of hole cavity and ram it well enough. After these steps you should pour rods with concrete solution.
To enhance the strength make construction reinforcing using metal rods. For one pile you will need at least three rods diameter – 12 mm. The length should be chosen so that they are above the level of a basement about 4 inches. Then ends are included in a beam, which connects pile bases. Fill up a well with reinforcement of concrete solution, which should be well compacted.
Congealed piles have to be fastened together, for this purpose you will need a reinforced concrete grillage, load-bearing beams, steel channels, and angle. Before loading a foundation, it is necessary to wait until it finally grabs after installation.
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